© Jana Christopher


Categories of frequently occuring image aberrations:

All images on this page courtesy of EMBO Press

Duplication of background

A whole section of background, marked by red frames, has been duplicated


Duplication of micrographs

The same image was used twice. The overlapping area is marked by a yellow square.



The top panel has been vertically cut after the first band

and spliced together


Cloned background


Small sections of background have been cloned and pasted into different areas.

Erased data

Bands have been erased with a healing tool or eraser tool


Dropped-in components

The 2 middle bands have been inserted