Examples

© Jana Christopher

 

Categories of frequently occuring image aberrations:

All images on this page courtesy of EMBO Press

Duplication of background

A whole section of background, marked by red frames, has been duplicated

 

Duplication of micrographs

The same image was used twice. The overlapping area is marked by a yellow square.

 

Splicing

The top panel has been vertically cut after the first band

and spliced together

 

Cloned background

 

Small sections of background have been cloned and pasted into different areas.

Erased data

Bands have been erased with a healing tool or eraser tool

 

Dropped-in components

The 2 middle bands have been inserted